First I'll tell what I've used in my work:
- Apache Cordova (a.k.a. PhoneGap)
- jQuery Mobile as main UI
- Mongodb from Mongolab as database
- Backbone.js and underscore.js for templates
- jQuery Mobile Flat-UI Theme
- webL10n for easy localization on the run
I've done this application in 1.5 month, but if I spent on it whole day, I think this application could be created in a week or less. You've got good instruments and you just combine them to get awesomeness.
Second problem was that each page have it's own ecosystem, and you should use code to initialize something common between pages, so I've got corresponding js file for every html page.
Finally I finished my application. There was some problems to release apk file, but I've solved them. It's really easy to publish application with Cordova framework.